COVID-19 Updates

Updated May 07, 2021

Over the past year, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic, impacting lives and economies on scales rarely seen. Below, Forte Analytics has highlighted the impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. health care system.

Our thoughts are with the families and loved ones impacted by this crisis, especially the hospitals, physicians, and long-term care providers serving on the front lines.

Data source: USAFacts
Retrieved from
Accessed on May 02, 2021. (Data current as of May 01, 2021.)
Rendered by Forte Analytics

1-Month Change in U.S. Health Care Jobs:
Overall and Three Components Representing Ambulatory Health Care Services, Hospitals, and Nursing and Residential Care Facilities

Data source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, CES6562100001, CES6562200001, CES6562300001, Plus Sum of All Three Components
Updated on May 07, 2021, with data through April 2021

For years, the U.S. health care sector has demonstrated remarkable durability with respect to annual and monthly job growth and has weathered significant downturns, such as the Great Recession and other less impactful recessions. In fact, the resistance of this sector to job cuts during these downturns has led some to refer to it as a “recession-resistant” component of the U.S. economy.1 Unexpectedly, it appears that a global viral pandemic—a time of urgent need—has exposed vulnerabilities underlying the U.S. health care system. The ongoing challenges in the health care sector first appeared as a crack in March 2020 (–94,700 jobs), followed by the opening of a chasm in April 2020 (–1.5 million jobs).

The monthly jobs report for May 2020 brought some good news. Broadly, the U.S. economy added more than 2.8 million payroll jobs and the unemployment rate dropped significantly. Within the health care sector, more than 300,000 workers returned to jobs in May. While these increases were limited to the ambulatory health care services (AHCS) component, the pace of job losses slowed in the other two health care components, raising hopes of a rebound across all components in June’s report.

Indeed, the good employment news continued in June 2020, with the U.S. economy adding 4.8 million payroll jobs, as the unemployment rate fell to 11.1%. In health care, more than 350,000 jobs were added. By component, AHCS and hospitals both added jobs, while nursing and residential care facilities (NRCF) posted another monthly loss.

As 2020 came to a close, the employment reports showed a slowing labor market, culminating with the loss of more than 300,000 jobs in December 2020. Economists pointed to a surge of COVID-19 cases—which prompted another round of regional shutdowns—and a prolonged period without additional federal economic stimulus as two of the primary reasons for the loss of momentum.

Relief on both fronts is now available. As of early May 2021, there are three COVID-19 vaccines in use in the U.S. (see below), and the federal government has approved another $0.9 trillion and $1.9 trillion in relief through legislation passed in late 2020 and early 2021. The employment reports in 2021 through April offer signs of an accelerating recovery in the labor market, with 233,000 jobs added in January, 536,000 in February, 770,000 in March, and 266,000 jobs added in April.

In health care, the differences among the three underlying components of employment have grown starker over the past year. Specifically, all three components saw sharp declines from their most recent highs in February 2020 through April 2020: AHCS fell by more than 17%, hospitals fell by 2.5%, and NRCF by 4.1%. However, their paths after April 2020 diverged. Both AHCS and hospitals recovered significantly, with AHCS standing at a cumulative decline of just 1.3% and hospitals at 1.9% through April 2021. In contrast, the NRCF component has eroded throughout nearly all of this entire period, falling by a cumulative 10.0% through April 2021. The sustained decline in the NRCF component reflects both the severe impact of COVID-19 on the nursing home population as well as an accelerating trend away from nursing homes as a site of care.

1 M.L. Dolfman, et al. Healthcare jobs and the Great Recession. Monthly Labor Review. Retrieved from Accessed April 2020.

Top 20 Countries for Cumulative COVID-19 Case Counts, by Date

Data source: World Health Organization
Retrieved from
Accessed on May 02, 2021. (Data current as of May 02, 2021.)

As COVID-19 sweeps across the globe, governments at all levels—nation, state, and municipality—are reacting with varying speed and to varying degrees. As the threat of an outbreak increases, governments must make complex decisions, risking criticism for reacting either too aggressively or too slowly. The mathematics of pandemics is unforgiving, with early actions vital in slowing or even halting the spread of the disease.1 As South Korea makes clear, recent experience with an outbreak can make government’s job easier. However, the duration of the current pandemic has stretched the public’s patience, even for those early success stories, as indicated by rising case counts in South Korea.2

As of early 2021, the world’s efforts to contain COVID-19 remained mixed. Importantly, two new strains of the virus—B.1.1.7 and B.1.351—with significantly higher transmissibility are now spreading rapidly. The B.1.1.7 variant has now become the dominant variant in the U.S., and India has set a new daily record for the number of new cases in a single country in a single day—412,000. Collectively, these data highlight the challenges of limiting the spread of the disease through non-pharmaceutical interventions—masks, reduced public gatherings, social distancing, etc.—steps that disrupt lives and economies significantly, highlighting the world’s need for and anticipation of safe and effective vaccinations.

Through May 2021, three vaccines have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—two based on mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna) and one based on DNA (Johnson and Johnson). The former were approved as two-dose regimens, while the latter was approved as a one-dose regimen. The FDA also allowed more flexible storage conditions for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine as a way of reducing logistical challenges.3 Vaccine distribution and administration accelerated significantly through early April 2021, leading to an average of more than 3 million doses administered per day in the U.S., providing hope for a return to a social and economic environment closer to that of the pre-pandemic period. However, in early May 2021, the daily rate of vaccination has dropped significantly, making vaccine hesitancy a prominent concern. In addition, public health officials are keeping a watchful eye on the virus’s evolution, as a range of variants arise in distinct parts of the world.

As the U.S. passes the one-year anniversary for a number of significant COVID-related events, the country must remember the tight coupling between the course of the pandemic and the path of the economy. Although advances in vaccines and treatments for COVID-19 offer reason for optimism, we must not forget nature’s bias toward selecting for evolutionary advantage. Each new infection offers the virus the possibility of evolving to a form that diminishes or eliminates our progress to date. For public health officials, this means keeping a careful eye on the rise of variants across the globe with hopes of slowing their spread, while nations race to raise the collective immunity of the population as quickly as possible.

1 Australian Academy of Sciences. The Mathematics of Social Distancing. Retrieved from Accessed April 2020.

2 Kuhn, A. (2020). New Coronavirus Cases Are on the Rise in South Korea. Retrieved from
Accessed September 2020.

3 FDA. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Allows More Flexible Storage, Transportation Conditions for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Retrieved from
Accessed May 2021.